Explore high availability of GlusterFS through CTDB
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In its native form, GlusterFS gives you redundancy and high availability (HA). However, the clients that connect to your GlusterFS volumes by using its NFS or Samba exports need to have some additional services installed and configured on the GlusterFS nodes. This article explains how to add HA to NFS and Samba exports that are managed by the GlusterFS nodes when you build your volume.
Note: If you use Cluster Trivial Database (CTDB) for the NFS exports, your GlusterFS nodes already have the NFS exports created, and the service is installed and configured.
GlusterFS installs and uses a modified version of the NFS service (NFS v3 that uses TCP), and it is managed through the glusterd service scripts, not through the /etc/init.d/nfs scripts.
Previous articles in this series describe the theory behind GlusterFS, the different types of volumes it supports, and the different ways of connecting clients to GlusterFS nodes by using the native Gluster client (FUSE) or the NFS exports managed by GlusterFS nodes.
Some clients that need to access GlusterFS volumes might not be compatible with the native FUSE driver for various reasons, and these clients need to connect to the volumes by using NFS or Samba exports provided by your GlusterFS nodes.
One drawback to using the NFS or Samba exports is that, unlike using the native client, if a node goes offline, your clients won’t be able to automatically reconnect to a different GlusterFS node. This can result in problems for your client system, including D state processes and issues that are a direct result of the storage becoming unavailable.
To battle that problem, developers from the Samba project have created a simple clustering tool called CTDB. You need to configure and deploy CTDB to achieve HA for clients that rely on NFS protocols to access your GlusterFS volumes. This article guides you through the process of adding a Samba export to your nodes and configuring it to be highly available by using CTDB.
CTDB is a simple clustering daemon developed by Samba developers that provides a simple solution for highly available CIFS and NFS exports. It adds virtual IP addresses and a heartbeat service to each GlusterFS server node. For those volumes that are exported via CIFS, it also adds a locking mechanism.
You can find more information about CTDB at http://ctdb.samba.org.
Using CTDB ensures that your clients, whichever method they use (NFS or CIFS), can still access the volume in case of a brick failure.
The following items are necessary for CTDB installation:
- CTDB installed on all nodes
- A number of unused IP addresses that will be used as floating IP addresses for your bricks and the services used on the bricks to export the volume
- Round-robin A records in your DNS (or hosts files on clients) for the virtual IP address
Install CTDB on each GlusterFS server node:
yum install ctdb
You need a shared volume (can be Gluster) to store the lock files and be available to all GlusterFS server nodes. The best practice is use a separated volume, but the following example uses a volume that was already created,
On each GlusterFS server node, run the following command, where N is the number of the node, so that each node mounts the volume via its own glusterd service:
mount -t glusterfs glusterN:/gvol0 /gluster-volume0/
Install Samba on each GlusterFS server node:
yum install samba
Ensure that nothing blocks communication between Gluster server nodes on port 4379.
Disable Samba from automatically starting. It will be managed by the CTDB service.
chkconfig smb off
Configure the CTDB /etc/sysconfig/ctdb file, as follows:
CTDB_RECOVERY_LOCK=/gluster-volume0/.CTDB-lockfile CTDB_PUBLIC_ADDRESSES=/etc/ctdb/public_addresses CTDB_MANAGES_SAMBA=yes CTDB_NODES=/etc/ctdb/nodes
Configure the /etc/ctdb/public_addresses file, which is the list of virtual IP addresses to be assigned to all server nodes. This example uses two virtual IP addresses per server node (one for NFS and one for Samba), so in total it uses eight new private IP addresses.
vi /etc/ctdb/public_addresses 10.0.0.6/24 eth2 10.0.0.7/24 eth2 10.0.0.8/24 eth2 10.0.0.9/24 eth2 10.0.0.10/24 eth2 10.0.0.11/24 eth2 10.0.0.12/24 eth2 10.0.0.13/24 eth2
In /etc/ctdb/nodes, list the server nodes that will be members of the CTDB cluster:
vi /etc/ctdb/nodes 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.3 10.0.0.4
Start and verify the configuration
Start the CTDB service on each cluster node, and configure it to start automatically at boot:
service ctdb start chkconfig ctdb on
When CTDB starts, it will start Samba, so ensure that Samba is not enabled to automatically:
chkconfig smb off
Verify that CTDB is running and check the status of the service:
ctdb status ctdb ip ctdb ping -n all
You should see the following output:
ctdb statusreturns the following information:
[root@centos63-gluster1 ~]# ctdb status Number of nodes:4 pnn:0 10.0.0.1 OK (THIS NODE) pnn:1 10.0.0.2 OK pnn:2 10.0.0.3 OK pnn:3 10.0.0.4 OK Generation:247859038 Size:4 hash:0 lmaster:0 hash:1 lmaster:1 hash:2 lmaster:2 hash:3 lmaster:3 Recovery mode:NORMAL (0) Recovery master:0
ctdb ipreturns a list of all IP addresses and the nodes to which they are assigned:
[root@centos63-gluster1 ~]# ctdb ip Public IPs on node 0 10.0.0.6 node active available[eth2] configured[eth2] 10.0.0.7 node active available[eth2] configured[eth2] 10.0.0.8 node active available[eth2] configured[eth2] 10.0.0.9 node active[eth2] available[eth2] configured[eth2] 10.0.0.10 node active available[eth2] configured[eth2] 10.0.0.11 node active available[eth2] configured[eth2] 10.0.0.12 node active available[eth2] configured[eth2] 10.0.0.13 node active[eth2] available[eth2] configured[eth2]
ctdb ping -n allshows the result of issuing a ping to all nodes:
[root@centos63-gluster1 ~]# ctdb ping -n all response from 0 time=0.000084 sec (4 clients) response from 1 time=0.000380 sec (4 clients) response from 2 time=0.000577 sec (4 clients) response from 3 time=0.000420 sec (4 clients)
CTDB as explained in this article provides highly available NFS and CIFS services across GlusterFS replica servers. However, it does not load balance connections. To prevent the interfaces from being saturated on any of the GlusterFS servers, you can configure your solution with a round-robin DNS or WINS (or even hosts) for the CTDB-defined IP addresses.
For example, a round-robin DNS entry could look as follows:
; zone file fragment ! ; NFS vips gluster-nfs-vip 1 IN A 10.0.0.6 gluster-nfs-vip 1 IN A 10.0.0.7 gluster-nfs-vip 1 IN A 10.0.0.8 gluster-nfs-vip 1 IN A 10.0.0.9 ; SAMBA VIPs gluster-smb-vip 1 IN A 10.0.0.10 gluster-smb-vip 1 IN A 10.0.0.11 gluster-smb-vip 1 IN A 10.0.0.12 gluster-smb-vip 1 IN A 10.0.0.13
On your clients that are not supporting the native FUSE client, you could use the following methods:
mount -t nfs -o vers=3 gluster-nfs-vip:/gvol0 /mnt/gluster-gvol0
CIFS (on Windows clients):
net use <DeviceLetter> \\gluster-smb-vip\gvol0
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