Cloud Databases FAQ
What is Cloud Databases?
Cloud Databases is a standalone, API-based, relational database service built on OpenStack® cloud that enables Rackspace customers to easily provision and manage multiple MySQL database instances. Instances are provisioned in a single-tenant, container-based environment per account and are accessible through the Rackspace internal ServiceNet network. In addition, High Availability (HA) instances can also be provisioned with a public IP during creation to enable access via public IP. Each database instance is optimized for performance. You can run a database instance by using MySQL, Percona, or MariaDB as the database technology.
What are the benefits of using Cloud Databases?
Cloud Databases provides a complete solution for customers who demand a high-performance, purpose-built infrastructure designed for relational databases that is backed and supported by engineers who specialize in MySQL workloads. Cloud Databases is a fully-managed service for customers who want to focus on developing their applications without having to manage the underlying infrastructure. The service offers high availability, scheduled backups, on-demand backups and restores, integrated monitoring, redundant storage, replication, scalability, and full control of your database.
Can I provision Cloud Databases if I don’t have Cloud Servers or Cloud Load Balancers on my account?
Yes, High Availability (HA) instance groups enable both internal connections on the data center’s internal service network (ServiceNet) and external networks through a public IP or hostname. Single instances and replica sets are provisioned only with network interfaces on ServiceNet. Connecting to one of these types of Cloud Databases instances remotely requires either a Cloud Server or Cloud Load Balancer to proxy the connection.
For more information about connecting to a Cloud Databases instance, see Connect to a Cloud Databases instance.
For more information on HA instance groups, see High Availability for Cloud Databases or the “High Availability” section of this FAQ.
What kind of storage solution does Cloud Databases offer?
Each Cloud Databases instance comes with an attached storage volume. Storage volumes are automatically provisioned on a shared Internet small computer system interface (iSCSI) storage area network (SAN) that enables increased performance, scalability, availability, and manageability. Applications with high input/output (I/O) demands are performance-optimized and data is protected through both local and network RAID-10. (RAID stands for redundant array of independent disks.) Additionally, network RAID provides synchronous replication of volumes with automatic failover of SAN nodes and load balancing across available storage clusters.
How is performance better than running a MySQL database on a Cloud Server?
Every Cloud Databases instance is optimized for performance. Cloud Databases uses container-based virtualization, which eliminates the performance bottlenecks that are associated with traditional hardware virtualization and enables your database to run at near bare metal speeds. Cloud Databases also uses dedicated SAN storage and high-speed networking to give you faster access to your data.
What instance sizes do you currently support?
What types of Rackspace products and accounts can use Cloud Databases?
Any US or UK customer with a Cloud account may provision multiple ServiceNet database instances and also manage multiple databases and users (within resource limits). This service is also available to RackConnected Cloud Servers that use RackConnect. Both First and Open Cloud Servers can connect to Cloud Databases, as well as any product with access to our internal ServiceNet network within the same regional data center.
Can Cloud Databases be used with dedicated servers?
No, Cloud Databases are available only to customers with Cloud account credentials. Managed Operations Service Level or dedicated customers with RackConnect (those customers who also have a Cloud account) have access but can use the service only with their Rackspace Cloud product resources.
Is Cloud Databases available in the Cloud Control Panel?
Yes. Use the following steps to access Cloud Databases:
- Log in to the Cloud Control Panel
- In the top navigation bar, click Select a Product > Rackspace Cloud.
- Select Databases.
Connecting to a Cloud Database instance remotely requires a high availability instance group with a public IP, or a single or replica instance connected either to a Cloud Server or a Cloud Load Balancer to proxy the connection.
Does Cloud Databases support SSL for communication between my application and my database instance?
Yes. An SSL certificate is installed for each Cloud Databases instance. This certificate enables a secure connection between your application and the instance. When an SSL connection is established, any data transfer between the instance and the application is encrypted.
Can I write to my database instance during a backup?
The behavior of your instance during a backup depends on the storage engine that you use for tables. If you use only InnoDB, write access to your database instance is not suspended. However, if you have MyISAM tables, those databases are write-locked during the backup process.
What storage engines do you support for database backups?
MySQL supports several types of table engines, which are also known as table types. The tables on a Cloud Databases instance can use either a mix of different table engine types or use the same type. We currently support backups of databases that use InnoDB and MyISAM.
How much do you charge for database backups?
Backups are stored in your Cloud Files account, and you are charged for the storage that they use. Standard rates for Cloud Files storage apply. For current costs, see the OpenStack pricing page.
How do you perform database backups?
Backups are created by using Percona XtraBackup to create a hot copy of all of the databases on an instance. The resulting database files are streamed directly to your Cloud Files account for storage.
Do you provide database backup and restore features?
Scheduled backup, on-demand backup, and restore operations are currently supported by the Cloud Control Panel and the Cloud Databases API. For more information, see Scheduled backups for Cloud Databases and Manage backups for Cloud Databases. For details about using the Cloud Databases API, see the API Reference. You can also use backup and restore features through the Trove command-line interface (CLI) tool. For information about using this tool, see Using the Trove client.
How long does a database backup take?
The duration of a backup depends on the size of your databases and any network saturation during the backup.
How do I restore a database backup?
To restore a database backup, you must create a new database instance and specify the backup that you want to restore during the create request. Your backup is loaded to the new instance, and you receive a DNS endpoint for the new instance. After the restore operation is complete, update your application to use the new endpoint.
The original instance is not altered during a restore operation and might remain in use or be deleted through the API, the CLI, or the Cloud Control Panel.
How many database backups can I request?
There is no limit on the number of database backups that you can create.
Note: You may run only one backup at a time. Duplicate requests generate a 422 error.
When a Cloud Database is deleted how is the data removed?
Cloud Databases runs off of SAN storage by using a mount point. After an instance is deleted, the mount point is destroyed.
Are database backups deleted when a database is deleted?
Backups are not deleted when a database instance is deleted. You must manually remove any stored backups.
Can I automate my backups?
Yes. Scheduled backups enable you to set a time of day to take a daily backup and a day of the week to take a full backup. You can also specify the maximum number of full backups to retain.
Monitoring and troubleshooting
What Cloud Databases operations are supported at different service levels?
Support coverage information is available on the OpenStack Cloud Service Levels page.
Where can I find the Cloud Service Level Agreement?
The Cloud Service Level Agreement (SLA) is available on the Rackspace website.
How can I monitor my resource use on Cloud Databases?
Monitoring is available for all Cloud Databases instances through pre-configured Cloud Monitoring checks, including load average, CPU, memory, disk storage, network, and a number of MySQL metrics. You can monitor your Cloud Databases instances by using the Cloud Control Panel, the Cloud Monitoring API, or the Cloud Monitoring CLI.
You can also set up alarms that send email alerts to you that are based on thresholds that you define. An alert for disk space is set up by default for every instance.
In addition, you can use Rackspace Intelligence to observe usage patterns for any unexpected changes in your environment. For more information, see Getting started with Rackspace Intelligence for the cloud.
Can I create a Cloud Databases support ticket?
Yes. A Cloud Databases support ticket category is available in the Cloud Control Panel.
What are the differences between InnoDB and MyISAM?
InnoDB is the default storage engine for Cloud Databases. InnoDB enforces Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability (ACID) transactions that enable commit, rollback, and crash recovery capabilities to protect user data.
During a backup, a hot copy process is used on all tables. InnoDB tables record all transactions during the copy in order to replay them during a restore operation.
In order to create a consistent backup, MyISAM tables are write-locked during the copy process. While the instance is being backed up, you cannot add or delete databases, add or delete users, or delete, stop, or reboot the instance.
For more information about these engine types, see the following MySQL documentation:
How many connections does each database instance size support?
The following table provides details about maximum numbers of connections and
my.cnf file settings per database size:
|Size||Max connections||Max user connections|
What is the maximum scalable capacity of a Cloud Database instance?
You can provision instances with up to 64 GB of memory and up to 500 GB of disk storage. You can increase storage up to the maximum by using the Cloud Control Panel. To increase storage beyond 500 GB, submit a support ticket. Note that disk storage cannot be decreased on a running instance.
Can I set up a read-only MySQL user in Cloud Databases?
Yes. However, all users created through the Cloud Control Panel, API, and CLI have full permissions by default.
To create read-only users, you first must enable the root user and then use that user to generate and manage additional users with read-only privileges.
Can I enable a root (super) user?
Yes. Currently, the root user can only be enabled through the public API or the CLI.
After root is enabled, it cannot be disabled.
What versions of MySQL do you offer?
Cloud Databases supports MySQL 5.6, Percona 5.6, and MariaDB 10. For all newly created Cloud Databases instances, MySQL 5.6 is the default. We will continue to support MySQL 5.1 for legacy instances, but we recommend that our customers use the latest version of MySQL, Percona, or MariaDB because they offer significant performance improvements and newer features. For more information that will help you choose the right database version for your application, see Choosing the right database with Rackspace Cloud Databases.
What bandwidth limitations are enforced on the ServiceNet network?
The following table shows bandwidth in megabits per second (Mbps), based on instance size.
|512 MB||20 Mbps|
|1 GB||100 Mbps|
|2 GB||200 Mbps|
|4 GB||300 Mbps|
|8 GB||400 Mbps|
|16 GB||500 Mbps|
|32 GB||1000 Mbps|
|64 GB||2000 Mbps|
Where can I find the documentation for Cloud Databases?
For release notes, API documentation, and a Getting started guide for Cloud Databases, see Rackspace Cloud Databases API v1.0.
Are there API or account limits for my Cloud Database instances?
Yes. By default, all accounts have a preconfigured set of thresholds that manage capacity and prevent abuse of the system. The system recognizes two kinds of limits: rate limits and absolute limits. Rate limits are thresholds that are reset after a certain amount of time passes. Absolute limits are fixed at the account level. For the most up-to-date information about rate and absolute limits (which include instance and volume limits), see the Rackspace Cloud Databases Developer Guide.
If my database instance is unavailable, what happens to my data?
If you cannot access your Cloud Databases instance, your data is still protected on a redundant SAN.
How can I access my database instance?
Cloud Databases provides several options for connecting to your database, which gives you complete flexibility in how you access your database. You can connect to your database by using the following methods:
You can also use the Cloud Control Panel, the API, or the CLI to manage your database instance. While some features are not available in the Cloud Control Panel, you can access these features through the API or the CLI. More information about the API and the CLI is available in the Cloud Databases API documentation.
How do I set the default time zone for MySQL?
You can set the default time zone for a Cloud Databases instance of
MySQL by creating a configuration group that sets the
default\_time\_zone parameter to the offset from UTC. (For example,
-6:00 for CST.)
For more information, see Set the time zone for a Cloud Databases instance.
Do you support importing and exporting data into the database?
Do you support MySQL configuration (my.cnf) file modifications?
Yes. Configuration settings for Cloud Databases instances can be stored and applied by using the Cloud Control Panel and the Cloud Databases API. You can save your settings in configuration groups, and then apply each configuration group to multiple instances. You can maintain multiple configuration groups to account for different workloads.
What level of access do I have to my database instance?
Access to MySQL is allowed only over port 3306. Shell-level access is not available. Full MySQL access can be obtained by enabling the root user on the database instance.
What is the default database storage engine?
The default storage engine is InnoDB. However, other storage engines such as MyISAM that are included with MySQL also work for certain use cases.
What is High Availability for Cloud Databases?
A Cloud Databases High Availability (HA) instance group includes a source database instance with one or two replicas. If the source database instance becomes unavailable, an automatic failover is initiated to one of the replicas. The automatic failover and promotion of the new instance is completed within a short downtime of approximately 10 to 30 seconds.
What flavors are supported for HA instance groups?
When you provision an HA instance group, you can choose any flavor from 1 GB to 64 GB.
Can I create a backup of the High Availability instances?
Yes. Both on-demand and scheduled backups are available for HA instance groups.
Can I resize the RAM for my HA instances?
Yes. However, resizes of HA instance groups can be applied only to the entire group and cannot be applied to individual instances in the HA group.
What is the underlying technology for creating Cloud Databases HA instances?
For details on the technical architecture used to create Cloud Databases HA instances, see High Availability for Cloud Databases.
Do HA instances support automatic failover?
Yes. Rackspace ensures that if the source database instance becomes unavailable, an automatic failover is initiated to the replicas within 10 to 30 seconds of downtime.
What is the pricing for HA instances for Cloud Databases?
HA instances carry a small premium per instance over regular Cloud Databases instances and are charged per instance, similar to replica sets. (An HA group with a master and one slave counts as two instances.) The additional cost per instance covers the load balancer containers that are added for HA instance groups. For the latest pricing information, see the Cloud Databases product page.
Which databases are supported for HA instances for Cloud Databases?
Rackspace currently supports MySQL 5.6, Percona 5.6, and MariaDB 10 for HA database instances.
How many replicas can I add to the HA group?
Rackspace enables you to add a maximum of two replicas to the primary source database instance. You can have a maximum of three total instances in the HA group: one primary and two replicas. In the future, we will increase the number of replicas that you can add to an HA group.
Where can I find more technical details about High Availability?
For more information about HA, see High Availability for Cloud Databases.
Can I convert regular instances to High Availability Instances?
Yes. You can convert replica sets to HA groups through the API or the Cloud Control Panel. We will add the ability to convert a single instance to an HA group at a later date.
Can I monitor replication?
Yes. You can monitor replication using the monitoring agent installed on the instance. For more information, see Database replication with Cloud Databases and Monitoring Read Replication in the API documentation.
Is replication supported between different versions of the database?
No. You can only add replica of the same database type and version as your source database instance.
Is replication supported between different regions?
No. You can only add a replica in the same region as your source database instance.
Does setting up replication require downtime?
When you add a replica to the source DB instance, the instance is restarted. This means that your database is unavailable until the instance restarts.
Is there a charge for replication?
Each read replica added is charged the same way as a new instance.
Does replication support auto failover?
Replication does not currently support automatic failover. If your database instance goes down and you want to use a replica instance to minimize downtime, you must do a manual failover to the replica instances. For manual failover, you must detach the replica from the source instance and change the application endpoint to this new source database instance.
If you’re interested in automatic failover, take a look at our High Availability instances.
Is replication supported for all database types?
Replication is supported for MySQL 5.6, Percona 5.6, and MariaDB 10. We do not support replication for MySQL 5.1 because this is an older version of MySQL and there have been significant improvements for replication support in newer versions of MySQL. We highly recommend all users to upgrade from MySQL 5.1 to MySQL 5.6.
Do you support replication?
Yes we do support master-slave replication. You can add and manage replicas using Cloud Control Panel and Cloud Databases API. For more information about managing replication by using the API, see the API documentation for replication.
How much does Cloud Databases cost?
Pricing information is available at the Cloud Databases pricing page. Standard charges apply for any Cloud Servers, Cloud Load Balancers, or Cloud Sites that are used to access your Cloud Database instances.
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